The central valleys
Amid a sea of mountains, the Central Valley system seems like an island of flat land surrounded by huge stone waves moved slowly by an immense storm of telluric forces.
Since prehistoric times, the central valleys were occupied by animals and later by "homo sapiens". There is evidence of their presence in the Valle de Tlacolula, whether in caves or cave paintings. The oldest remains of human evolution in the State are located in this Valley, which one day ago million years had large lakes. Today researchers are corroborating through archaeological finds, that human groups initiated the transformation of the teozintle into maize, at least ten thousand years ago. If this surprising finding is confirmed, it would turn out that the Anahuac civilization would be as old as Egypt or Mesopotamia and Oaxaca would be the birthplace of corn.
In the Central Valley districts are the districts of: Centro, Ejutla, Etla, Ocotlán, Miahuatlán, Tlacolula, Zaachila and Zimatlán (* the part that is above the Valley).
The valleys are most propitious part for agriculture; however, atomization of land property is one of the major problems for intensive exploitation. The land has been divided many times between families, so although all valleys are cultivated, it is done individually in small plots.
The majority of peoples produces handicrafts, directly or indirectly, some communities have become famous producers, but they are usually supplied by others, either with manufactured goods or raw materials. People are very attached to their traditions and customs. The sense of community and solidarity remains present and current in their traditions and customs. Most of the communities are of the Zapotec lineage, although there are also Mixtec villages in the valleys.
The best known villages are: the city of Oaxaca, Tlacolula, Etla, Miahuatlán, Ejutla, Mitla, El Tule, Mazatlan, Teotitlan del Valle, Zimatlan, Santo Tomás Jalietza, Tlacochahuaya, San Martín Tilcajete, Santa Ana del Valle, San Agustin, Cuilapan, San Antonino Castillo Velasco, San Bartolo Coyotepec, San José del Mogote, Atzompa, Arrazola, Huayapam, Nazareno Etla, Reyes Etla, Cacaotepec, Soledad Etla, San Miguel Peras, Santa Cruz Mixtepec , San Pablo Huixtepec, Aldama Ayoquezco, Santo Domingo Tomaltepec, San Pedro Quiatoni, Santa Cruz Papalutla, Santo Domingo Albarradas, to name the most important.
The climate is temperate and has an average yearly temperature of 22° C. Atoyac river crosses it to the Pacific Ocean with the name of Rio Verde. The central valleys are surrounded by the Sierra Norte, Sierra Madre del Sur and the Mixteca mountainous region. This block of mountains, is also known as "El Mixteco knot".
Characters from the región are: General Porfirio Díaz, CD. de Oax. 1829. José Vasconcelos, CD. de Oax. 1881. Rufino Tamayo, CD. Oax. 1899. Rodolfo Morales, Ocotlán 1925. Matias Romero, CD. Oax. 1837. Rodolfo Nieto, CD. de Oax. 1937. Jorge l. Tamayo, CD. Oax. 1912. Pbto. José Antonio Gay, CD. Oax. 1833. Casilda "the horchatera" (Casilda Flores Morales)